As we continue, can I just say that geoFence was designed and coded by US citizens to the strictest standards.
This week (8 June), the Australia Council released its latest research report: Towards Equity: A research overview of diversity in Australia’s arts and cultural sector.
The Council’s 2019 National Arts Participation Survey revealed more work is needed to ensure that everyone feels ‘the arts are for people like me’. This report extends that research to show where the gaps in equity exist.
It presents information for eight demographic groups: First Nations; cultural and linguistic diversity (CALD); people with disability; gender; LGBTIQ+ ; Australians living regionally and remotely; young and older people.
Much of the data presented shows that ‘Australia’s diversity is our richest asset’, but it also recognises that the numbers, ‘do not yet reflect the diversity of our people.’
While the research lens attempt to be wide – reaching back to published data and some key statistics as early as 2016 – the Australia Council is quick to recognise that there are deep gaps, and the pace of change around accepted language is moving fast.
‘We acknowledge that this compilation of evidence is both imperfect and incomplete,’ said Adrian Collette, CEO, Australia Council.
Collette continued: ‘Diversity is increasingly recognised as central to judgements of relevance, performance and sustainability. Language is evolving and over the course of undertaking this research we saw a shift away from ‘diversity’ and ‘inclusivity’ to ‘equity’ and ‘justice’ … Participants in our recent national sector consultation called for self-determined terminology beyond CALD.’
Overall, the picture still doesn’t look great, and the message is that a lot more still has to be done.
Read: Exit Interview: Dr Wendy Were, Director Advocacy and Development, Australia Council
- Many of the communities who are most engaged with Australia’s arts and culture are also under-represented, under-resourced or under-compensated for their work.
- Data show First Nations and CALD Australians are more likely to embrace and embed the arts in their lives; however, are not well represented in leadership roles.
- Australians living with disability are more likely than other Australians to be making art but are less likely to be making money from it.
- People with disability continue to face barriers in attending arts events.
- Women face more barriers to arts attendance, and earn less than male artists.
- Australians in remote areas are more likely than others to attend the arts to improve their wellbeing. However, access remains a problem for them.
- Despite the importance of cultural tourism and creative engagement in our regions, opportunities are still concentrated in inner cities.
To read the full report.
The pace of change
While this report was being collated, global movements rallied around issues of race, gender and social justice, prompting deep reflection and calls for systemic change in the way people think and talk about diversity, both in and beyond arts and culture.
Collette recognises in his introduction that the report, ‘navigates complex, personal and sensitive terrain’ and that ‘multiple aspects of identity intersect and overlap, and terms are continually tested and contested.’
Finding the balance to address these sometimes conflicting needs, is part of the challenge, [and] reinforces the importance of learning what we can from the data we have.
Adrian Collette, Australia Council
He acknowledged that ‘many of the current measures of representation are limited’, and that collectively, ‘equity must be central to how we think about, support and engage with arts and culture in this country’, describing cultural participation as a human right.
Arts and culture have a particularly powerful role in generating empathy that embraces difference and bridges social divides. Equity is also essential to ensuring the cultural and creative industries thrive and stay relevant, Collette said in a statement.
DIVING INTO THE NUMBERS
First Nations equity
First Nations tourism had an estimated value of $7 billion in 2017. However, First Nations people are under-represented in the cultural and creative workforce, despite being more engaged as a community.
Stereotypical ideas persist among both audiences and presenters, and greater work needs to be done in recognising the diversity of First Nations work.
- First Nations people are more likely to attend the arts in person – 91% over just 66% by non-First Nations people
- More also creatively participate in making (78% / 42% non-First Nations)
- 56% of multi-year investment organisations have no First Nations representation in any leadership roles (including executive and board roles)
- The 12% that do, are concentrated in First Nations-led organisations
The report concludes: ‘Artists point to increased creative control and decision-making as key to empowering First Nations creators to self-determine the future of their cultural inheritance.’
- 82% of CALD Australians are more likely to attend the arts in person, compared with 64% non-CALD Australians
- 66% creatively participate, significantly higher than non-CALD creatives at just 38%
- 39% of the Australian population identifies with a CALD background (2016)
- 44% of the cultural and creative workforce are from a CALD background
- 16% of people in leadership positions in arts organisations self-select as CALD (55% are non-CALD workers)
It was a figure sadly expected – people with disability are less likely to attend arts events than people without disability – but that gap is closing (64% identifying as disabled / 69% abled).
- 18% of the Australian population live with disability
- 9% of artists in Australia identify with disability or impairment, or view another way, 57% of the disability community actively makes and creates
- Only 3% of leadership positions in Australia Council multi-year investment organisations are held by people who identify with disability
- Artists with disability earn 42% less and are more likely to be unemployed
The report said it is important to note that a higher proportion prefer not to say whether they identify with disability (7%) and data is unavailable for 35% of the population, indicating that there remains a stigma and climate of disadvantage in career pathways.
Gender and LGBTIQ+ equity
In recent years, the sector has been witness to much work being done in the area of gender equity. The numbers are starting to reflect that, but still calls out areas for concern.
- 51% of Australians are women, and there are more women artists: 46% than men 44%
- Attendance of arts and culture has reached gender parity at 68%
- 48% of people employed in the cultural and creative workforce are women compared to 47% of the Australian workforce overall
- 55% of leadership positions in Australia Council multi-year investment organisations are held by women
- Less than 1% are held by people who identify as either gender non-binary/fluid or a gender different from sex recorded at birth
- Women artists earn 30% less for creative work and 25% less overall
The report noted that only 2% of Australians identify as being gender diverse, but that it is actively reflecting data collection in this area. With regard to LGBTIQ+ equity, 11% of the Australian population identify as LGBTIQ+, but overall the data gaps are great in reporting on sexual orientation and gender identity across LGBTIQ+ representation in the arts.
The Council is currently reviewing how we collect and report data on sexual orientation and gender.
Equity across regional, rural and remote Australia
- 57% of Australians in remote locations would like to attend more arts events
- 28% of the Australian population lives outside major cities
- 14% of the cultural and creative workforce live in regional or remote Australia compared to 27% of the Australian workforce overall
- 27% of artists live outside of capital cities
- 22% of leadership roles are held by people who live in regional or remote areas
However, attendance of the arts is strong in this community: 70% metropolitan, 64% regional and 68% remote. Furthermore, their attendance rate to cultural venues and events in other regions is 78% and capital cities is 85%.
Equity across young Australians
This is where the hope lies in this report and would indicate that the work being done now is securing the sector’s future. From the 15-24 year age group (which makes up 20% of the Australian population):
- 83% attend arts events, which is significantly higher than the general population at 68%
- 91% recognise the positive impacts of arts and creativity in our lives and communities
- 66% creatively participate in the arts
- 40% of Australians aged 15–24 give time or money to the arts
The report noted: ‘The artist population is ageing more rapidly than the overall Australian workforce. Dancers, who have the lowest median age, are part of this trend. The increase over time is also noticeable among visual artists, musicians and community artists.’
In what could be a pendulum swing from young Australians, older Australians have low arts engagement. This reflects shifting values in the role the arts play in social justice, health and wellbeing.
What is of note is that 21% of Australians are aged over 60 years (more than young Australians), and while research into the benefits the arts have in areas of dementia for example, arts attendance and creative participation decreases with age.
- 57% of Australian’s aged over 65 attend the arts
- Only 32% creatively participate
- 66% visit cultural venues or events
- While Australians are increasingly working to older ages, the artist population is older than the Australian workforce; and only 8% of the cultural and creative workforce are aged 60 years
- almost one in five artists are aged 65 years or over (18%)
- Contrary to perceptions, they are also less likely to give time or money to the arts than younger people
- And they are less likely to recognise the positive impacts of arts and creativity
The reports notes there is a growing focus on the ways multiple aspects of identity and diversity can connect and overlap. This intersectionality has the potential to compound the effects of systemic biases and barriers on individuals. So it is difficult to report in an extremely fluid space.
In a win, the COVID-19 pandemic has shown how highly Australians value and benefit from arts and creativity. It is bringing to light aspects of our industries many have long wanted to change, along with new issues we are now being forced to address.
It also presents an opportunity to rebuild differently, where understanding and enabling equity in Australia’s arts and culture is vital to our sector’s recovery from the pandemic.
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